Exciter: Diehliomyces microsporus.
20 -30 years ago, False Truffle met quite often. Were compost yards with fully concreted area where the piles formed and the cone of the first phase. Also in pasteurization tunnels it was mostly wooden perfopoly. In November 2016 this pathogen (pictured below) was found on one of my mushroom farms. And as it turned out, they had wooden floors tunnel pasteurization, although poluindorah first phase (bunker 1F) were perforated concrete floors. Straw has been stored incorrectly and most bales in contact with the ground. To date, the mushroom cultivation False Truffle a rarity.
Symptoms: with the defeat of compost false truffle, its creamy-white mycelium grows rapidly between compost straws, and eventually turns into a thick zheltovatye cords and further forms fruiting bodies the compost, Pokrovka and on its surface. Leaving the surface Pokrovki forms grayish or cream stains. In the compost, but more often in and on the coating layer, the mycelium produces chlamydospores which are grouped to form a creamy brown formation, reminiscent of a truffle fruiting bodies, hence the name of this disease, as well as the form of the purified walnut. On the other hand, these formations are like dead deformed fruit mushroom body.
Mushroom mycelium is not developed, the compost gets an unpleasant chlorine smell and a dark color, it becomes wet and sticky to the touch.
At the beginning of the false truffle mushroom mycelium it looks normal, but soon watered and breaks, resulting in fruiting bodies are not formed.
False truffle mycelium in the early stages of development, it is difficult to distinguish from mushroom mycelium. The mature sporophores false truffle produce a large number of spores (the so-called ascospores). Dutch scientists have brought that total 10 spores per square meter, the area of cultivated mushrooms, reduces their productivity up to 30%. It should be noted that if the compost contamination occurred before the development of the mycelium or mushroom in this period, the yield losses can reach 75%.
Development false truffle contributes high temperature compost. Dry heat resistant ascospores – even when processing 80 ° C for 2 hours, they remain viable.
Fake truffle is not a parasite directly to the mushrooms, but it leads to the death of the mycelium in the compost and Pokrovka.
The source of infection: The source of infection are considered controversial False truffles, not available in high-quality coating mixture. It can manifest itself when sowing mushroom mycelium in compost from the compost temperature of 30 ° C or higher, since the temperature is optimal for its growth. The disease can spread from the affected residues false truffle casing soil and compost dirty tools and equipment, as well as its spores with water, air, dust particles, insects, nematodes and rodents. The source can also serve as soil (mud). Since false truffle spores naturally live in the soil and biological waste.
Prevention and control:
- Strict adherence to the rules of sanitary norms and rules.
- The fermentation is carried out only on the concreted and clean floors. straw bales lower rows of stacks, which are in contact with the ground, can not be used for compost. Who wood perfopoly in tunnel pasteurization, it is a very positive effect on the development of false truffle, he settles into a tree and lived there a long time, since disputes false truffle transferred safely below 70 degrees, and is known to this floor in a tunnel high-temperature pasteurization is not .
- Incubation is carried out at a temperature of compost 24 – 26°С.
- Get rid of the insects and to control their presence.
- Set the air cleaning filter fine channels in the fresh air intake and exhaust windows (2 micron pore diameter).
- Compliance with the technology of preparation of the coating mixture, which should be carried out in areas not in contact with the ground and the remains of compost after fruiting mushroom or mushrooms thrown.
Struck compost, before unloading, to be subjected to a heat treatment (steaming) at 70 ° C – 12 hours or at 80 ° C – 6 hours. It is necessary to make sure that the parameters of temperature data were characteristic for the entire compost mass. After unloading the camera and wash thoroughly klimatustanovki. If you can not steaming, after discharge and thorough washing of the hall and klimatustanovok disinfect VIROTSIDOM using a special gun (fogger) in a proportion of 1 liter Virotsida 6 l. water (cultivation room 200 m²) or DISOLITOM. First, when the fan is blown disinfectant solution into the recirculation channel, then the fan is stopped and the treated whole room.
Steaming compost before unloading, the best way to disinfect all diseases.
consultant, technologist for mushroom cultivation