The first mention of the cultivation of shiitake is the end of the 17th century in Japan, said Balázs Erdei, a spokesman for Sylvan at the conference dedicated to the cultivation of exotic mushrooms, which took place on 10-11 April in Wroclaw, Poland. But it is possible that these mushrooms are cultivated for over a thousand years. Some documents confirm that wild shiitake mushrooms have been used in the food about 199 years BC. e.
Since then, the use of this mushroom has acquired a mass of mysteries, myths and claims, some of which are, however, similar to the truth. Using this fungus trying to treat cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, the immune system, impotence, and a host of other diseases. But even if the fungus does not have medicinal properties, it is in any case deserves to be present in the dishes, it is very delicious product with a very pronounced taste.
In Europe, we began to grow shiitake in 30 of the 20 century on the logs. And today a considerable number of the fungus entering the market, is grown using this technology. He was the first of the three fungi that man learned to cultivate. But still, this mushroom is not very widespread in Europe.
According B.Erdei, the EU produces about 4000 tons of shiitake in the year, although the figure may be very inaccurate. Most shiitake grown in Spain – about 1,200 tons / year, and France – about 1,100 tons / year. Germany and the Benelux countries accounted for about 750 tons per year. In Poland, the production is about 100 tons / year. In addition to the consumption of own production, the EU also bought quite a large number of imported Asian fungus, but the exact amounts called very difficult.
The best raw material for the production of shiitake is wood evergreen tree Shii (castanopsis). In Spain and France for proizvoizvodstva shiitake use straw, other countries are more popular pasteurized or sterilized substrates based on wood chips. The process of industrial production shiitake has one of the longest cycle for cultivated mushrooms – production from substrate to produce a crop passes 20 – 25 weeks.
In Poland, we visited one, by local standards, large farm, which produces a substrate for the production of shiitake – Drzazdzynsky. On the farm produce about 2 million bags trehkilogrammovyh substrate per week, they are incubated, and then transmitted privates for growing mushrooms. The raw material is drevestnaya chips, corn cobs, and some other ingredients appear. The substrate was sterilized in an autoclave samopalnyj about 8 hours. Buy one package with the substrate can be 6.5 zlotys, or about 18 USD. Productivity, which is collected from the block averages about 25-26% by weight of the substrate. Thus collected no more than 3 waves.
In the local market sold a total of about 200 kg of shiitake in the week, and the rest of the company are exported to Germany, England, Switzerland, the Czech Republic. Sale price of mushrooms – from 23 to 26 zlotys, or 60-70 UAH / kg.