Nematodes English name: nematodes. A representative transfer class Nematoda
Mushroom growers in their practice can interfere with pests such as nematodes mushroom culture.
This colorless microscopic worms which live naturally in various environments: peat, soil, marsh water, decaying plant nematodes ostatkah.Na mushroom company can get different ways: with no cover mix quality, not rarely quality compost by insects and dirty tools and equipment maintenance personnel.
Found in the mushroom culture nematodes are divided into two groups: the saprophytic, feeding on decaying materials, and parasites (mycophagous), fed exclusively with mold and fungal mycelium cells. In favorable conditions, the nematodes can multiply very quickly and in a short time, so the damage caused to crops by them, may be significant.
Saprophytic nematodes, as a rule, are not considered as direct pests mushroom. Using a tube-like mouth, they suck nutritious organic matter and microorganisms, in particular bacteria which are present in large numbers and in compost and soil cover. Therefore, poorly cooked and poorly pasteurized compost is not well suited to the development of fungal mycelia, but it is a favorable environment for the feeding and reproduction of nematodes survived after pasteurization. The non-selective substrate having an excessively wet areas, the nematode populations are growing incredibly quickly. Their isolation and increasing amount of putrefactive bacteria weaken mushroom mycelial growth. That can occur when the excessive flow of water through the casing soil during irrigation, resulting mycelium “pants”. Compost becomes wet and dark, due putrefactive bacteria unpleasant odor in the chamber.
Furthermore, the nematodes have the ability to slow the drying and the formation of “cysts” temporary protective shell, whereby they can survive under unfavorable conditions, in a state of suspended animation for a long time. In this kind of nematodes are easily carried by air. Parthenogenesis, ie the type of sexual reproduction in which females reproduce without a male, enables a rapid increase in the population of nematodes under favorable conditions.
Poor collection techniques, such as leaving the legs of fungi or mushrooms on beds residues may also contribute to the development of nematodes, as they will feed on decaying mushroom tissue.
These nematodes are microscopic, transparent as glass, and the worms feed exclusively on the contents of the mold and fungal mycelium cells. There are two types, Ditylenchus myceliophaguss (body length to 0,87mm. Thickness up to 0.03 mm.) And Aphefenchoides composticola, (body length to 0.5 mm. Thickness to 0,019mm.). Researchers have identified as the most immediate and dangerous pest of mushroom mycelium. Depending on their number, they can bring the mushroom farm into bankruptcy. There were cases when the entire yield is a maximum of 5-10% with a large number of these nematodes. They are characterized by acicular oral cavity, with which the pierce hyphae injected digestionnye suck juices and cell contents. Cells are killed, and nematodes moving from cell to cell, thus destroying, mycelium. Interface (joint casing soil with compost) darkens. In addition, it is believed that nematodes, piercing the threads of mycelium, contribute to the spread of bacterial and viral infections. In places where the mycelium dies compost rots, darkens and becomes wet and sticky, shelves sagging resemble peat seems dried up, there is an unpleasant smell because of the activity of anaerobic bacteria.
Signs of the presence of nematodes: cessation of growth fruiting bodies on the stage pins and match heads. And also abundant occurrence Simuliidae, as occurring putrefaction.
Mycophagous can be seen only under a microscope, but with a large population, they can be seen with a good flashlight, swarming in large numbers on the surface of the coating mixture (especially on sites where there black mycelium and mushrooms). They form plexus Similar to sticking up and oscillating as “glass” yarn flickering light. In this state, the nematodes are able to tolerate insects, mites and personnel involved in the collection of mushrooms.
The reasons for the presence of nematodes:
Non-compliance with staff rules of sanitation and hygiene.
Not quality Pokrovka (all the swamps nematodes are found in the upper layers of peat).
The presence of insects.
Dirty tools and equipment
A method of preventing the presence of nematodes are reduced to, in order to prevent them from falling and spread across the enterprise. Much attention should be given to efforts to prevent the spread of nematodes using personnel, tools and equipment. Use casing soil reliable suppliers. Get rid of the insects and to control their presence. All waste and waste compost should be removed immediately from the territory of the mushroom farm.
Борьба с нематодами:
If nematodes are present in the soil cover, then immediately rush to the mycelium in the compost. Therefore, the first day after the application of the covering soil and the post-humidification mixture, add last watering fitoverm in an amount of 1% -.. 2mll / 1L / m² (200mll 100 l of water..). In case of the step pins match heads to make a first curtain of the same dose of the fungus (mushroom loses its qualitative parameters), this is not the chemical and biological preparations produced by a special technology, blocking nutrient tract nematodes and they die during 4- 7 days of ceasing to eat. AKTOFIT can also be used, but it is 0.2%, so the dosage is 5 times more -. 10mll / l / m² (1 liter per 100 liters of water.)…
cultivating chamber infected with nematodes (where appropriate) should be kept at a low temperature as possible. At the end of their growth cycle necessarily steamed within 12 hours taking care that the temperature in all parts of the compost reaches the same value + 72 ° C. If it is impossible steaming, after unloading and thorough washing halls and klimatustanovok, disinfect special fogger fitoverm in the same proportions 50mll. per 10 liters of water or Aktofitom – 250mll. per 10 liters of water. First, when the fan is blown into the recirculation channel, then the fan is stopped and obscure the entire room.
Under normal hygienic conditions and applying the coating mixture of reliable suppliers, nematodes rarely cause serious problems. However, mushroom growers have to use all ways and means to prevent the emergence and spread of nematodes in the enterprise.
Here posledsvy presence of a large number of nematodes mycophagous. The first wave, the collection was not yet. Nematicides in Pokrovka not been made.