On the number of mushroom producers in Ukraine a few years ago there were only guesses. Some called the number “to the thousands of” some were inclined to believe that about 500 or a little less. Working in the mushroom industry understood that among the regions of Ukraine by the number of leading manufacturers of Kiev region, but how many manufacturers there, and how much they produce fungus, could not say no.
So how many mushroom producers in Ukraine and how the fungus they grow?
Difficult to determine the number of mushroom growers are linked primarily to the fact that the majority of small producers are not registered as such, that, on the one hand complicates the search for them, and on the other hand, often stimulates out of themselves are not particularly spread of its activities. But even legally operating company is not easy to find – NACE chosen by the company, as a rule, include a much broader activity than the cultivation of mushrooms.
Not just to assess the number of mushroom, which is produced in Ukraine. Reports that serves companies in the statistics, tend to have little to do with actual volumes of mushroom grown, and, again, a large number of manufacturers simply do not hand over any reports.
The most reliable figure that we have – this is the import of the mycelium. Given that domestic production of mushroom mycelium is minimal, compost manufacturers use imported spawn. But mycelium “converted” to the mushrooms in two stages: first, through the application rate in the compost, and then through the mushroom yield from this compost. And if the first digit is stable enough and is almost the same from one manufacturer to the compost, the yield on mushroom production meets the most different.
News Agency “Umdis” carefully collected database of mushroom producers. And today, according to our estimates, the known mushroom producers account for about 75-80% of all mushroom producers operating in Ukraine, and they have grown about 90% of the fungus produced in Ukraine.
At this point in our database 210 working farms for mushroom production (including closing for the summer) with whom we have a relationship. About 20 manufacturers, the existence of which we have heard, but could not reach them. Also in our database about 50 farms that are not currently producing, but they have a greenhouse or build them. And, in addition, we believe that in Ukraine there are still 30-50 mushroom producers (most of which are very small), about which we have no information.
Thus, the number of working farms champignons in Ukraine IA “Umdis” estimated at 250-270 units. For comparison, in Poland, which produces 5 times more mushrooms than in Ukraine, by farms in the thousands, and in the Netherlands, which also grows in 5 times more mushrooms than Ukraine, is only about 130 households.
In the production of compost for mushroom and its cultivation of more than 4,000 people are employed in Ukraine, of which 80% – workers and 20% – engineers and management.
For the vast number of companies with whom we have a relationship, we know where they are, the area of cultivation, information about the presence or absence of a cooling medium (they called) yield, the period of inactivity in the summer (if any), the main suppliers of compost and casing soil. From this information, we can draw some conclusions about the number of mushroom produced specific farming for the year, even in cases where direct manufacturer can not or do not want to voice this figure.
It is these calculations, after comparison with the mushroom production volumes in the country, calculated on the basis of imports of the mycelium, allow us to say that we know about the manufacturer about 90% of the cultivated mushroom in the country.
The volume of production of mushroom in Ukraine in 2012/2013 MG (August 2013-July 2013), calculated on the basis of import to Ukraine of the mycelium, gives us a number of mushroom production in Ukraine. Assuming that the average yield on all farms, including “failed” compost batch is 23% of the weight of compost, all-Ukrainian mushroom harvest in this period is 56.5 thous. Tons of mushroom.
Production of mushrooms, according to the analysis of IA “Umdis” data producers, only those with whom we have a relationship, is about 51 thousand. Tons in the same period.
These figures put the Ukraine somewhere in the beginning of the second ten largest producing countries in the world champignon.
The volume of mushroom production from September to May is relatively stable, at the level of 5 thousand. Tons per month, in December, production increased by 10-15% and is about 5,5-6,0 thousand. Tonnes. Production in the summer months, dropping to 3-4 tonnes / month, reaching a minimum of 3 ths. Tons in July and August.
Today, the greatest number of mushroom 17 thousand. Tons (30% of all Ukrainian production) provides Kiev region. There is also a roughly half of mushroom producers (we have a relationship with more than 100 manufacturers in the Kiev region). As in the Kiev region a lot of small producers who do not have cooling and closing for the summer, Kiev region will contribute greatly to reducing the volume of mushroom production in the summer.
Next is the Donetsk region, with an annual production of more than 10 thous. Tons., Nearly half of which in 2013 will be the crop harvested LLC «Miko-Food”.
Following, a production of 2.5 to 4 thousand. Mushroom tons per year, are Cherkasy, Lvov, Kharkov, Dnipropetrovsk and Odessa area. And in the Cherkasy region of the lion’s share of production provides the only enterprise – Litvinetsky branch SOOO Shevchenko, popularly known as the “Veres”.
Most small amounts of mushrooms, 500 tons per year, grown in Nikolaev, Vinnitsa, Volyn, Chernivtsi, Ternopil regions.
A clear dependence of the yield obtained from the size of the farm is not observed. There are both large and small farms that receive high yield, and in both groups there are farms which are in a difficult situation due to low crop yields.
But the mushroom yields collected by producers in different regions vary significantly. It is clear that the low prices and huge competition forced manufacturers of Kyiv region to be the most effective in terms of yield – the average yield on the farms that grow more than 100 tons of champignons per year was worth 27%. With such a measure can only compete Odessa region, where there are a small number of very efficient producers.
At the same time in eastern Ukraine, where until last year, Ltd. “Miko-food” there were almost no problems with the sale and kept the high price of the fungus, the average yield was about 22-23% (not including in the calculation yields a few large farms, yield which are unknown to us).
Export and import of fresh mushrooms is practically absent. The canned exported about 1,800 tons of mushrooms – mostly TM “Veres”. Imported canned mushroom about the same, but the exact number we do not know.