Pathogen vertitsila – Verticillium fungicola, which forms a very sticky spores. The symptomatology may be constantly changing depending on the stage of development at the time of the fungus infestation. Early infection leads to the fact that the pins do not develop, transformed into a shapeless mass, become gray / brown. Infection at later stages leads to a thickening of the legs, particularly at the base, skryuchivaniyu mushroom cap buckling, and direction change cap growth.
Infection mushroom cap happens at the most advanced stages of fungal development and manifests itself in circular spots on the surface of the cap, which was originally a light brown color, which with age become gray (this mycelium Vertitsila).
Vertitsil very serious and dangerous disease of mushrooms, it can bring the economy of the enterprise to a state where it is not possible to be engaged in cultivation.
Manifested disease 10-14 days after infection. Particularly favorable for the development of the disease, elevated humidity and temperature. With the onset of spring and summer, the number of spores and the possibility of infection increases Vertitsiliumom.
Vertitsil often arises in the coating mixture is not of quality. Peat (ground) and is the main source of infection.
Disputes very sticky, the disease spreads to the dust particles in the air – often from old waste, not steamed substrate (it should be taken away after unloading, as far as possible). This dust can infect fresh substrate or Pokrovka. primordium defeat suggests that infection has occurred during the incubation time or by applying the coating mixture. If the second wave of a lot of mushroom infected, most likely, all of the body will be infected in the third wave. Because after collecting a second wave of need to unload and steamed room.
Disputes Vertitsila apply for production with the unfiltered air to the shoes and clothes of Staff, hair, dirty packaging, tools and equipment. Since the debate is very sticky, it can easily be carried by insects, mites, nematodes and rodents. Spores can lie for a long time, waiting for germination; as soon as they get in favorable conditions, their growth begins.
Prevention and control: Similar to Mikogonom. In the first place – it is hygiene in the workplace. It is necessary to prevent the proliferation of the disease. Wash and disinfect clothing, often change the disposable gloves, wash bottles, equipped with filters fresh air intake ducts and exhaust windows.
No need to give Vertitsilu grow big. It should not be removed pickers (they then run the risk of becoming a source of further infection), and specially trained employees “health teams”. Pickers in turn, should be easy to identify Vertitsil – firstly, that it did not touch it, and secondly, to notify the foreman of his presence. If there is no health care, before or after the collection of mushroom gathering a few people need to identify who will clean the infected mushroom. After this operation, all the clothes must be washed in hot water and a maximum disinfected.
Remove affected mushrooms need a very ostorozhno.Dlya order to safely remove Vertitsil the shelf next technique is recommended. Disposable plastic bag is worn on special accommodate made of plastic pipes (the diameter of 150 mm.), And then adapt this Vertitsil “pulled” to the compost. The package is tied and in a special container or large plastic bags all taken out and disposed of. Thus, the outer side of the package remains clean, no contact with the hand, and the number of spores caught in the air – is minimal. The place where the disease has been removed pour liquid lime or gypsum to sleep. Salt is not desirable because when watering it will scatter in different directions and later on mushrooms appear yellow spots.
Attention – even if the infection is large, in any case it is not necessary to collect the infected mushrooms in a bucket or box, ignoring the above recommendation. If you do so, the number of spores in the air Vertitsila will be so great that it will infect and all camera and clothes of people who did – and he, in turn, hallway and other rooms.
It is important to spread the word as much as possible has decreased in numbers dispute Vertitsila the enterprise! Before unloading the camera to be treated with steam is not less than 12 hours at 68 degrees and wash thoroughly, including klimatustanovki. If the lights are removed before steaming, and then thoroughly washed and disinfected. When there is no possibility of steamed growing room: first, it can be discharged earlier, when the spread of the disease is not so much, and secondly, to try before unloading to remove from the shelves maximum number Vertitsila the manner described above, in the third place, it is desirable to treat the shelf disinfectant. After unloading, a thorough washing chamber and air conditioning systems, to disinfect. Disinfection is carried out with a solution Disolita, virotsida or their analogues. First produced in blowing-deztumanom recirculation channel enabled fan, the fan stops and then processed by the entire room.
The most effective way to combat the spread of secondary Vertitsila is only steaming! disinfectants processing though and helps reduce the risk, but not very effective.
It is strictly forbidden to make watering until harvested Vertitsil! When watering of infected fungi in the air raises a large number of spores and the rapid spread of the disease is guaranteed.
To prevent infection Vertitsilom:
- When choosing the coating mixture, give preference to certified suppliers. The main source of primary infection – peat (primer).
- Keep the casing soil in a clean environment and use it as soon as possible after delivery, especially in the summer.
- Use the last watering Pokrovki Sporgon (200-300g at 100l. Water) 1 l / m2. If done ripping, fungicide paid after loosening, as it prochloraz, the active ingredient creates a so-called plenochku (loosening it will be torn), which will block Vertitsil longer.
- Or (less preferably) with poslednm watering Pokrovki introduced Mirage (MLL 200-300. To 100l. Water) 1 l / m2 .If done loosening, Mirage need to make one day prior to loosening. Since it is designed for crops and more aggressive (more depressing than mushroom mycelium sporgon) and phase STOP mycelium will recover for a long time.
- Be sure izbavtes insect and control their presence.
- The facility should be set a certain order and sequence of all the rules work. Mushroom picking is necessary to begin with the first wave, and ends with the last, or in parallel, but different teams. Strictly abide by all the rules of sanitary norms.
- The floors in all the halls and corridors of cultivation, must be kept clean and moist. As the dust spores of the pathogen quickly ARE SOLD.
- All personnel should be provided with clean protective clothing and disposable caps.
- Use steaming.
technologist for mushroom cultivation